Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. Browse by Lessons Creatures in Irish Mythology: Archived PDF from the original on 8 January You might have noticed blankets, furniture, carpet, curtains, or even your clothing.
Textile is a fabric that's knitted or woven and made from yarn. Thus, the textile industry is the industry responsible for taking a raw material, like cotton or wool, and spinning it into yarn that is later used to create a fabric. All of the processes involved in the converting of the raw material into a finished product - developing, producing, manufacturing, and distributing textiles - are included in the industry.
The textile industry utilizes many different types of fabrics, but all of them can be broken down into two major categories, natural and synthetic. Natural fabrics are those that occur naturally from things like animals sheep, silkworms, alpacas and plants cotton and flax. Synthetic fabrics are those that are created in a lab and are man-made.
Some examples of synthetic fabrics include rayon, spandex, polyester, and nylon. Up until the Industrial Revolution, many products in the textile industry were made at home and without the use of machines. But, the creation of machines led to the creation of factories, and soon fabric was mass produced.
Some key inventions that led to this boom and development of the textile industry include the flying shuttle , which allowed one weaver to use one hand and operate the loom. The spinning jenny made it possible to spin multiple threads at one time. And then there was the power loom , which used steam to power to combine threads.
The cotton gin was a mechanical invention that allowed for a more productive way to separate the cottonseed from the cotton fabric instead of doing it manually. The Jacquard loom which allowed for the creation of designs and patterns on the fabric.
There are many different steps in the textile industry. In this section we will look at a few major ones:. Anytime a fiber is made into yarn, it is called spinning. This is the step that takes a raw material and spins it into yarn.
There are many different steps in the spinning phase beginning with blow room, carding, drawing, combining, simplex, and ending with ring frame. Get FREE access for 5 days, just create an account. There are two more common manufacturing techniques known as weaving and knitting. Both take the yarn that was spun and either weave it together or knit it together. Many articles of clothing are created using a weaving or knitting technique.
During the processing step, the fabric may be washed, scoured, or even bleached to remove any unnecessary and unwanted things from the textile, like fats, color, or wax. The fabric can then be dyed or mercerized, which is the process of adding color and making it brighter.
The textile industry is responsible for making some of the most important things in our lives, like clothing and household products. Because so many products come from the textile industry, the industry employs , individuals in the United States alone. The workers are highly skilled, and the U. The four largest exporting countries in the textile industry include China, India, Germany, and the United States.
Textiles are fabrics that are knitted or woven from yarn. The textile industry is the industry responsible for converting raw material into a finished product, and it includes textile developing, producing, manufacturing, and distributing.
There are two major categories of fabric in the industry: Synthetic are created in a lab and are man-made. Some major inventions responsible for the growth of the industry include the flying shuttle, spinning jenny, power loom, cotton gin, and the jacquard loom.
There are three major steps in the textile industry, which include spinning, manufacturing, and processing. To unlock this lesson you must be a Study. Did you know… We have over college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1, colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. Not sure what college you want to attend yet?
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What is the Textile Industry? We all have our favorite article of clothing, but have you ever wondered where that piece of clothing began? In this lesson we'll learn all about the textile industry, which creates things like our clothing and many other items we love. Start Your Free Trial Today. An error occurred trying to load this video. Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. Register for a free trial Are you a student or a teacher?
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Introduction to World Religions: Intro to Music for Teachers: World Religions for Teachers: Praxis Mathematics - Content Knowledge Praxis Business Education - Content Knowledge History - Content Knowledge TExES History The Textile Industry Have you ever looked around your house at all of the products that contain some sort of fabric?
Types of Fabrics The textile industry utilizes many different types of fabrics, but all of them can be broken down into two major categories, natural and synthetic. Textile Industry History Up until the Industrial Revolution, many products in the textile industry were made at home and without the use of machines. Textile Industry Processes There are many different steps in the textile industry.
In this section we will look at a few major ones: Spinning Anytime a fiber is made into yarn, it is called spinning. Want to learn more? Select a subject to preview related courses: Manufacturing There are two more common manufacturing techniques known as weaving and knitting.
The spinning and weaving processes are very similar between fibers, however. Spinning evolved from twisting the fibers by hand, to using a drop spindle , to using a spinning wheel. Spindles or parts of them have been found in archaeological sites and may represent one of the first pieces of technology available.
They were invented in the Indian subcontinent between and AD. Up until the 18th century, Mughalistan was the most important center of manufacturing in international trade. The cotton textile industry was responsible for a large part of the empire's international trade. In early modern Europe , there was significant demand for textiles from Mughalistan, including cotton textiles and silk products. The key British industry at the beginning of the 18th century was the production of textiles made with wool from the large sheep-farming areas in the Midlands and across the country created as a result of land-clearance and enclosure.
This was a labour-intensive activity providing employment throughout Britain, with major centres being the West Country; Norwich and environs; and the West Riding of Yorkshire. The export trade in woolen goods accounted for more than a quarter of British exports during most of the 18th century, doubling between and Exports by the cotton industry — centered in Lancashire — had grown tenfold during this time, but still accounted for only a tenth of the value of the woolen trade. Before the 17th century, the manufacture of goods was performed on a limited scale by individual workers, usually on their own premises such as weavers' cottages.
Goods were transported around the country by clothiers who visited the village with their trains of packhorses. Some of the cloth was made into clothes for people living in the same area, and a large amount of cloth was exported. River navigations were constructed, and some contour-following canals.
In the early 18th century, artisans were inventing ways to become more productive. Silk , wool, fustian , and linen were being eclipsed by cotton, which was becoming the most important textile. This set the foundations for the changes. The woven fabric portion of the textile industry grew out of the industrial revolution in the 18th century as mass production of yarn and cloth became a mainstream industry. In in Bury, Lancashire John Kay invented the flying shuttle — one of the first of a series of inventions associated with the cotton woven fabric industry.
The flying shuttle increased the width of cotton cloth and speed of production of a single weaver at a loom. In , the Duke of Bridgewater's canal connected Manchester to the coal fields of Worsley and in , Matthew Boulton opened the Soho Foundry engineering works in Handsworth , Birmingham. His partnership with Scottish engineer James Watt resulted, in , in the commercial production of the more efficient Watt steam engine which used a separate condenser.
In , James Hargreaves is credited as inventor of the spinning jenny which multiplied the spun thread production capacity of a single worker — initially eightfold and subsequently much further.
Others  credit the invention to Thomas Highs. Industrial unrest and a failure to patent the invention until forced Hargreaves from Blackburn, but his lack of protection of the idea allowed the concept to be exploited by others. As a result, there were over 20, spinning jennies in use by the time of his death. Also in , Thorp Mill, the first water-powered cotton mill in the world was constructed at Royton , Lancashire, and was used for carding cotton.
With the spinning and weaving process now mechanized, cotton mills cropped up all over the North West of England. The stocking frame invented in for silk became viable when in , Jedediah Strutt introduced an attachment for the frame which produced what became known as the Derby Rib ,  that produced a knit and purl stitch.
This allowed stockings to be manufactured in silk and later in cotton. In , Hammond modified the stocking frame to weave weft-knitted openworks or nets by crossing over the loops, using a mobile tickler bar- this led in to Thomas Frost's square net.
Cotton had been too coarse for lace , but by Houldsworths of Manchester were producing reliable count cotton thread. From this point there were no new inventions, but a continuous improvement in technology as the mill-owner strove to reduce cost and improve quality.
Developments in the transport infrastructure; that is the canals and after the railways facilitated the import of raw materials and export of finished cloth. Firstly, the use of water power to drive mills was supplemented by steam driven water pumps, and then superseded completely by the steam engines. For example, Samuel Greg joined his uncle's firm of textile merchants, and, on taking over the company in , he sought out a site to establish a mill.
It was initially powered by a water wheel , but installed steam engines in Quarry Bank Mill in Cheshire still exists as a well-preserved museum, having been in use from its construction in until It also illustrates how the mill owners exploited child labour, taking orphans from nearby Manchester to work the cotton. It shows that these children were housed, clothed, fed and provided with some education. In he replaced the wooden turning shafts that drove the machines at 50rpm, to wrought iron shafting working at rpm, these were a third of the weight of the previous ones and absorbed less power.
Secondly, in , using an patent, Richard Roberts manufactured the first loom with a cast iron frame, the Roberts Loom. It was the mainstay of the Lancashire cotton industry for a century, until the Northrop Loom invented in , with an automatic weft replenishment function gained ascendancy.
Thirdly, also in , Richard Roberts patented the first self-acting mule. Stalybridge mule spinners strike was in ; this stimulated research into the problem of applying power to the winding stroke of the mule. Before , the spinner would operate a partially powered mule with a maximum of spindles; after, self-acting mules with up to spindles could be built.
The industrial revolution changed the nature of work and society The three key drivers in these changes were textile manufacturing , iron founding and steam power.
Textile production in England peaked in , and as mills were decommissioned, many of the scrapped mules and looms were bought up and reinstated in India. Major changes came to the textile industry during the 20th century, with continuing technological innovations in machinery, synthetic fibre, logistics, and globalization of the business.
The business model that had dominated the industry for centuries was to change radically. Cotton and wool producers were not the only source for fibres, as chemical companies created new synthetic fibres that had superior qualities for many uses, such as rayon , invented in , and DuPont 's nylon , invented in as in inexpensive silk substitute, and used for products ranging from women's stockings to tooth brushes and military parachutes.
The variety of synthetic fibres used in manufacturing fibre grew steadily throughout the 20th century. In the s, the computer was invented; in the s, acetate , modacrylic , metal fibres, and saran were developed; acrylic , polyester , and spandex were introduced in the s.
Polyester became hugely popular in the apparel market, and by the late s, more polyester was sold in the United States than cotton. By the late s, the apparel segment was no longer the largest market for fibre products, with industrial and home furnishings together representing a larger proportion of the fibre market.
The Multi Fibre Arrangement MFA governed the world trade in textiles and garments from through , imposing quotas on the amount developing countries could export to developed countries. It expired on 1 January The MFA was introduced in as a short-term measure intended to allow developed countries to adjust to imports from the developing world. Developing countries have a natural advantage in textile production because it is labor-intensive and they have low labor costs. However, the Arrangement was not negative for all developing countries.
For example, the European Union EU imposed no restrictions or duties on imports from the very poor countries, such as Bangladesh , leading to a massive expansion of the industry there.
The textile industry is primarily concerned with the design, production and distribution of yarn, cloth and clothing. The raw material may be natural, or synthetic using products of the chemical industry. Mobilizing Support for the U.S. Textile Industry in the 21st Century: The National Council of Textile Organizations (NCTO) is a unique association representing the entire spectrum of the textile industry. At the 13th annual NCTO meeting, outgoing Chairman Jeff Price painted a picture of the U.S. textile industry, and the association’s achievements and upcoming goals. By Jeff Price T he U.S. textile industry is on sound footing.