Wednesday, February 3rd, Ann Arbor, Michigan click here for info. Jim Fisk Stockbroker and speculator. Knowles was the maintenance man at Normore's apartment complex and the two were reported to be acquaintances. More than twenty years later, as the phrase became more widespread, a popular explanation became that this day represented the point in the year when retailers begin to turn a profit, thus going from being "in the red" to being "in the black". They gave the man their wallets, and then the suspect shot Hix in the stomach.
When is Black Friday?
In Spain joined with some small retailers. The celebration became more famous year by year, till the big retailers grew. In the Netherlands Black Friday was seriously introduced in Some years before there were a couple of big and small retailers that used Black Friday in their marketing proposes.
However, with the total of 35 participating stores, can be seen as the year in which Black Friday has started in the Netherlands due to more widespread support of large retailers. The participating shops have increased to over during the Black Friday period of Black Friday in Belgium is seriously marketed by retailers since After , Black Friday in Belgium has grown strongly. The participating shops have increased to over 70 during the Black Friday period of In Black Friday became widely popular in Latvia.
There was even a Black week and Black weekend sales in shopping centres. Black Friday has been increasingly adopted by stores in Brazil since ,  although not without its share of inflated prices and other scams, especially in its earlier years, earning the nickname " Black Fraude "  Black Fraud or also " Black Furadei ", which comes from the slang word " furada ", meaning a "jam" or tough situation, usually involving money.
It is also common to hear Brazilian people say that prices on Brazilian Black Friday are "half of the double". However, currently, the term "Black Friday" has become so popular in the country that stores have been under closer scrutiny from consumers and cases of known scams have been reduced greatly.
For centuries, the adjective "black" has been applied to days upon which calamities occurred. Many events have been described as "Black Friday", although the most significant such event in American History was the Panic of , which occurred when financiers Jay Gould and James Fisk took advantage of their connections with the Grant Administration in an attempt to corner the gold market.
When President Grant learned of this manipulation, he ordered the Treasury to release a large supply of gold, which halted the run and caused prices to drop by eighteen percent. Fortunes were made and lost in a single day, and the president's own brother-in-law, Abel Corbin , was ruined.
The earliest known use of "Black Friday" to refer to the day after Thanksgiving occurs in the journal, Factory Management and Maintenance , for November , and again in Here it referred to the practice of workers calling in sick on the day after Thanksgiving, in order to have a four-day weekend.
However, this use does not appear to have caught on. Around the same time, the terms "Black Friday" and "Black Saturday" came to be used by the police in Philadelphia and Rochester to describe the crowds and traffic congestion accompanying the start of the Christmas shopping season. In , the city and merchants of Philadelphia attempted to improve conditions, and a public relations expert recommended rebranding the days, "Big Friday" and "Big Saturday"; but these terms were quickly forgotten.
Use of the phrase spread slowly, first appearing in The New York Times on November 29, , in which it still refers specifically to "the busiest shopping and traffic day of the year" in Philadelphia.
Although it soon became more widespread, The Philadelphia Inquirer reported in that retailers in Cincinnati and Los Angeles were still unaware of the term.
As the phrase gained national attention in the early s, merchants objecting to the use of a derisive term to refer to one of the most important shopping days of the year suggested an alternative derivation: Black Friday, under this theory, is the beginning of the period when retailers would no longer be "in the red", instead taking in the year's profits.
In , an internet rumor alleged that the phrase originated in the American south before the Civil War , from the practice of selling slaves on the day after Thanksgiving. This was debunked by Snopes. Despite frequent attempts to control the crowds of shoppers, minor injuries are common among the crowds, usually as a result of being pushed or thrown to the ground in small stampedes.
While most injuries remain minor, serious injuries and even deliberate violence have taken place on some Black Fridays. In , a crowd of approximately 2, shoppers in Valley Stream, New York , waited outside for the 5: As opening time approached, the crowd grew anxious and when the doors were opened the crowd pushed forward, breaking the door down, a year-old employee was trampled to death.
The shoppers did not appear concerned with the victim's fate, expressing refusal to halt their stampede when other employees attempted to intervene and help the injured employee, complaining that they had been waiting in the cold and were not willing to wait any longer. Shoppers had begun assembling as early as 9: Even when police arrived and attempted to render aid to the injured man, shoppers continued to pour in, shoving and pushing the officers as they made their way into the store.
Several other people incurred minor injuries, including a pregnant woman who had to be taken to the hospital. During Black Friday , a Madison, Wisconsin woman was arrested outside of a Toys 'R' Us store after cutting in line , and threatening to shoot other shoppers who tried to object. She had been asked to leave the store, but refused. He was discovered to also be carrying two knives and a pepper spray grenade.
On Black Friday , a woman at a Porter Ranch , California Walmart used pepper spray on fellow shoppers, causing minor injuries to a reported 20 people who had been waiting hours for the store to open. The incident started as people waited in line for the newly discounted Xbox A witness said a woman with two children in tow became upset with the way people were pushing in line.
The witness said she pulled out pepper spray and sprayed the other people in line. On Black Friday , two people were shot outside a Wal-Mart in Tallahassee, Florida , during a dispute over a parking space. On Black Friday in , a person in Las Vegas who was carrying a big-screen TV home from a Target store on Thanksgiving was shot in the leg as he tried to wrestle the item back from a robber who had just stolen it from him at gunpoint.
The suspect and the dragged officer were treated for shoulder injuries. Three people were arrested. At the Franklin Mills Mall in Philadelphia a fight was caught on camera in which a woman was taken to the ground. The video also caught a separate, possibly related, fight happening simultaneously.
Friday morning on November 25, The shooter fired multiple shots, leaving an SUV covered in bullet holes, but the motives remain unclear. Cottman's year-old brother was also injured. An apparent argument over a parking spot at a Reno Wal-Mart resulted in one of the drivers pulling a weapon who shot and killed a year-old man. That incident technically occurred before Black Friday on the evening of Thanksgiving.
Derrick Blackburn, 19, was later arrested for unlawful possession of a weapon. A 61 year old pharmacist, Walter Vance collapsed and was left for dead by shoppers while being trampled and passed by a stampede, with the exception of an off-duty paramedic and a nurse giving CPR to Vance in a Target store in South Charleston, West Virginia during Black Friday , but died soon after.
The day after Thanksgiving as the unofficial start of the holiday shopping season may be linked together with the idea of Santa Claus parades. Parades celebrating Thanksgiving often include an appearance by Santa at the end of the parade, with the idea that 'Santa has arrived' or 'Santa is just around the corner' because Christmas is always the next major holiday following Thanksgiving. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many Santa or Thanksgiving Day parades were sponsored by department stores.
Department stores would use the parades to launch a big advertising push. Eventually, it just became an unwritten rule that no store would try doing Christmas advertising before the parade was over. Therefore, the day after Thanksgiving became the day when the shopping season officially started.
Thanksgiving Day's relationship to Christmas shopping led to controversy in the s. Retail stores would have liked to have a longer shopping season, but no store wanted to break with tradition and be the one to start advertising before Thanksgiving. For this reason, in , President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued a presidential proclamation proclaiming Thanksgiving to be the fourth Thursday in November rather than the last Thursday, meaning in some years one week earlier, in order to lengthen the Christmas shopping season.
Other companies followed with "Black Friday in July" deals which were as good as, or better than, those in November.
For many years, retailers pushed opening times on Black Friday earlier and earlier, eventually reaching midnight, before opening on the evening of Thanksgiving. In , Kmart opened at 7: Two years later, a number of retailers began opening at 8: In subsequent years, other stores have followed this trend, opening earlier and earlier on Thanksgiving Day, or remaining open all day, beginning in the early morning hours.
Some online stores invest a lot of money in promo campaigns to generate more sales and drive traffic to their stores. However, they often forget about the high loads their sites are going to experience. This just highlights that some retailers have not taken the necessary steps to prepare for Black Friday.
Failing to prepare for peak can cause poor performance, site downtime, and ultimately lost revenue for retailers". Such carelessness results in huge reputational demage. Moreover, The Veeam Availability Report shows that "Unplanned downtime costs organisations around the world an average of Rm annually, up from the Rm of the previous year".
Proactive retailers invest time and money into preparing their sites for high traffic. You should follow certain procedural tips like keeping your staff informed, assigning duty and on-call engineers as well as limiting new feature deployment , and technical ones preliminary site audit for potential bottlenecks, setting up monitoring systems, scaling heavy parts of your site, applying vertical scaling, and speeding up content delivery process to keep your site uptime during this highly-trafficked season.
Some websites offer information about day-after-Thanksgiving specials up to a month in advance. The text listings of items and prices are usually accompanied by pictures of the actual ad circulars. These are either leaked by insiders or intentionally released by large retailers to give consumers insight and allow them time to plan.
In recent years, some retailers including Walmart , Target , OfficeMax , Big Lots , and Staples have claimed that the advertisements they send in advance of Black Friday and the prices included in those advertisements are copyrighted and are trade secrets. Some of these retailers have used the take-down system of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act as a means to remove the offending price listings. This policy may come from the fear that competitors will slash prices, and shoppers may comparison shop.
The actual validity of the claim that prices form a protected work of authorship is uncertain as the prices themselves though not the advertisements might be considered a fact in which case they would not receive the same level of protection as a copyrighted work. While some sites have complied with the requests, others have either ignored the threats or simply continued to post the information under the name of a similar-sounding fictional retailer.
However, careful timing may mitigate the take-down notice. The court dismissed the case, ruling that only the third-party posters of the advertisements, and not the ISP itself, would have standing to sue the retailers.
However, in recent years, the convenience of online shopping has increased the number of cross-border shoppers seeking bargains from outside of the U. Statistics Canada indicates that online cross-border shopping by Canadians has increased by about M a year since Dedicated cross-border shopping solutions such as the Canadian shopping platform Wishabi  and Canada Post's Borderfree exist to mitigate the problem through estimation of the various cost involved.
Retailers noticed that many consumers, who were too busy to shop over the Thanksgiving weekend or did not find what they were looking for, shopped for bargains online that Monday from home or work.
In , Hitwise reported that: Thanksgiving weekend offered a strong start, especially as Black Friday sales continued to grow in popularity.
For the 2nd consecutive year, Black Friday was the highest day for retail traffic during the holiday season, followed by Thanksgiving and Cyber Monday. As reported in the Forbes "Entrepreneurs" column on December 3, The National Retail Federation releases figures on the sales for each Thanksgiving weekend. The survey estimates number of shoppers, not number of people. The length of the shopping season is not the same across all years: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Media Guide Holiday Facts and Figure". Archived from the original PDF on November 29, Archived from the original on November 29, Archived from the original PDF on January 12, The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, Retrieved January 23, Retrieved November 15, Retrieved July 16, Retrieved November 27, Archived from the original on August 15, Archived from the original on July 26, Retrieved January 2, Retrieved August 7, Archived from the original on November 24, Retrieved November 23, If your confirmation number does not begin with C, enter it without spaces or dashes.
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What is Black Friday?
New York & Company Black Friday Sale In , the Black Friday ad for New York & Company advertised the best deals of the year with up to 75% off on everything in the store and hundreds of /5(). Complete coverage of New York & Company Black Friday Ads & New York & Company Black Friday deals info. Black Friday in New York is the biggest discount shopping day of the year. This is the time when it is common for shoppers to expect sales of up to 80% off of regular prices! This only takes place once a year, so read on to find out more about Black Friday.